In this essay from New Media, Old Media , (originally published in Grey Room) Levin proposes an alternative history that takes into account underexamined developments in synthetic sound reproduction. While contemporary accounts of new media make it sound like threats to “real” or indexical sound only come with digitization, Levin explores well-documented events in the history of sythentic or “hand-written” sound by analog means.
This site provides information about the digital restoration of an Edison tinfoil record which dates from 1878. The restoration was done as part of a larger project to restore, preserve, and create digital access to sound recordings using non-invasive optical methods. This project is a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Library of Congress.