Reason CV to Moogerfoogers

Press Here For Reason To CV

This may be something to try for anyone who wants to experiment with software-to-CV conversion.  In this case you will be going from Reason to a Moogerfooger.  I’ve never used or seen MOTU Volta but this is worth a try.

From Wiki:

CV/Gate (an abbreviation of Control Voltage/Gate) is an analog method of controlling synthesizers, drum machines and other similar equipment with external sequencers. The Control Voltage typically controls pitch and the Gate signal controls note on/off.

This method was widely used in the epoch of analog modular synthesizers, beginning in the 1960s and up to the early 1980s.[1][2] It was mostly superseded by the MIDI protocol, which is more feature-rich, easier to configure reliably, and more easily supports polyphony.[3] Also, the advent of digital synthesizers, like the 1977 Prophet-5 and 1983 Yamaha DX-7, made it possible to store and retrieve voice ‘patches’ – eliminating patch cables[4] and (for the most part) control voltages.[5]Contents [hide]
1 Basic usage
1.1 CV
1.2 Gate
2 Modern usage
3 References
4 See also
5 External links

Basic usage

As early analog synths were modular, each synthesizer component (e.g. LFO, VCF) could be connected to another component by means of a patch cable that transmits voltage, with changes in that voltage causing changes to one or more parameters of the component. The most popular example of this technique is a keyboard that transmits a signal with two components:
CV (Control Voltage) indicates which note (event) to play: a different voltage for each key pressed; those voltages are typically connected to one or more oscillators, thus producing the different pitches required. Note that such a method implies that the synthesizer is monophonic.
Gate (sometimes called Trigger) indicates when a note should start, a pulse that is used to trigger an event, typically an ADSR envelope. In the case of triggering a drum machine, a clock signal or LFO square wave could be employed to signal the next beat (or rest).

While the concept of CV (Control Voltage) was fairly standard on analog synths, the implementation was not. For pitch control via CV, there are two prominent implementations:
Volts per octave. This standard was popularized by Bob Moog, if not created, in the 1960s; it was widely adopted for control interfacing.One volt represents one octave, so the pitch produced by a voltage of 3 V would be one octave lower than that produced by a voltage of 4 V. Notable followers of this standard include Roland, Moog, Sequential Circuits, Oberheim and ARP.
Hertz per volt. This method (used by Korg and Yamaha synths) represented an octave of pitch by doubling voltage, so the pitch represented by 2 V would be one octave lower than that represented by 4 V, and one higher than that represented by 1 V.

The following example table demonstrates some notes and their corresponding voltage levels in both implementations (this example uses 1 V/octave and 55 Hz/V):Note A1 A2 A3 B3 C4 D4 E4 A4 A5
Volts per octave scheme, V 1.000 2.000 3.000 3.167 3.250 3.417 3.583 4.000 5.000
Frequency, Hz 55 110 220 247 261 294 330 440 880
Hertz per volt, V 1.000 2.000 4.000 4.491 4.745 5.345 6.000 8.000 16.000

Generally, these two implementations are not critically incompatible; voltage levels used are comparable and there are no other safety mechanisms. So, for example, using a Hz/Volt keyboard to control a Volts/Octave synthesizer would eventually produce some sound, but it will be terribly out of tune. Commercial solutions are available to get round this problem, most notably the Korg MS-02 CV/trigger interface.

On synthesizers, this signal is usually labelled as “CV”, “VCO In”, “Keyboard In”, “OSC” or “Keyboard Voltage”.

Gate (Trigger) also has two implementations:
V-Trigger (“voltage trigger”, sometimes called “positive trigger”). This method involves keeping normally low voltage (around 0V) on trigger and producing a fixed positive voltage to indicate a note is on. The amount of voltage required differs from synth to synth, but generally it is from 2 to 10V. V-Trigger is used by Roland and Sequential Circuits synths, among others.
S-Trigger (“short circuit trigger”, sometimes called “negative trigger”). This one involves keeping voltage high normally, shorting the trigger circuit whenever the note should play. S-Trigger is used by Moog, Korg and Yamaha synths, among others.

Depending on the voltage level used, using the wrong combination of triggering mechanism would either yield no sound at all or would reverse all keypress events (i.e. sound will be produced with no keys pressed and muted on keypress).

On synthesizers, this signal is usually labelled as “Gate”, “Trig” or “S-Trig”.
Modern usage

Since the publishing of the MIDI standard in 1983, usage of CV/Gate to control synths has decreased dramatically. The most criticized aspect of the CV/gate interface is the allowance of only a single note to sound at a single moment of time.

However, the 1990s saw renewed interest in analog synthesizers and various other equipment, notably the Roland TB-303. In order to facilitate synchronization between these older instruments and newer MIDI-enabled equipment, some companies produced several models of CV/Gate-MIDI interfaces. Some models target controlling a single type of synthesizer and have fixed CV and Gate implementation, while some models are more customizable and include methods to switch used implementation.

CV/Gate is also very easy to implement and it remains an easier alternative for homemade / modern modular synthesizers. Also, various equipment, such as stage lighting sometimes uses CV/Gate interface. For example, a strobe light can be controlled using CV to set light intensity or color and Gate to turn an effect on and off. With the advent of non-modular analog synths, the exposure of synth parameters via CV/Gate provided a way to achieve some of the flexibility of modular synths. Some synths also could generate CV/Gate signals and be used to control other synths.

One of the main advantages of CV/Gate over MIDI is in the resolution. Most MIDI control messages use 7 bits or 128 possible steps for resolution. Control Voltage is analogue and by extension infinitely variable. There is less likelyhood of hearing the zipper effect or noticeable steps in resolution over large parameter sweeps. For this reason MIDI Pitch Bend uses 14 bits or 16,384 possible steps. There are ways to send higher MIDI resolution through the use of RPN’s and NRPN’s however in practice this is often difficult.

A major difference between CV/Gate and MIDI is that in many analogue synthesizers no distinction is made between voltages that represent control and voltages that represent audio. This means audio signals can be used to modify control voltages and vice versa. In MIDI they are separate worlds and there is no easy way to have audio signals modify control parameters.

Some software synthesizers emulate control voltages to allow their virtual modules to be controlled as early analog synths were. For example, Propellerheads Reason allows a myriad of connection possibilities with CV, and allows Gate signals to have a “level” rather than a simple on/off (for example, to trigger not just a note, but the velocity of that note)…

In 2009, MOTU released its Volta virtual instrument plug-in which allows audio workstation software with MIDI (and Audio Units compatibility) to precisely control any hardware device with a control voltage.

ReBirth Freeware Runs On Windows

Press Here For The ReBirth Museum

ReBirth RB-338 is a software synthesizer for Microsoft Windows[1] and Mac OS 8-9.[2] It was developed by Propellerhead Software, and its first alpha version (for Mac OS) was publicly released in December 1996. Propellerhead Software ceased developing the program in January 1999. Support was officially discontinued in September 2005. Shortly afterward, the ReBirth Museum Web site was launched and the last version’s (2.0.1) disk image was made available as a free download. Propellerhead Software continues to develop other software relating to dance-oriented computer-based music composition, including Reason, its flagship software synthesizer.

Free Musical Instrument Samples


Press Here For The Sample Site


The University of Iowa Musical Instrument Samples were created by Lawrence Fritts, Director of the Electronic Music Studios and Associate Professor of Composition at the University of Iowa in 1997.

The instruments were recorded in the Anechoic Chamber in the Wendell Johnson Speech and Hearing Center at The University of Iowa on the following equipment:

Neumann KM 84 Cardioid Condensor Microphone
• Mackie 1402-VLZ Mixer
• Panasonic SV-3800 DAT Recorder

The recordings were digitally transferred to Macintosh Power PC 8500 though a Digidesign Audiomedia III interface (1997-1999) or to a Macintosh G4 through a Digidesign Digi-001 digital interface (2000-present).

The recordings were edited into soundfiles in Digidesign Sound Designer II (1997-1999) or Bias Peak (2000-present) consisting chromatic scales at three non-normalized dynamic levels, pp, mf, ff.

Each note is approximately 2 seconds long and is immediately preceded and followed by ambient silence.

Some instruments are recorded with and without vibrato. String instrument recordings include arco (bowed) and pizzicato (plucked). The only non-anechoic instrument is the piano, which was recorded in a small faculty teaching studio.

All samples are in mono, 16 bit, 44.1 kHz, AIFF format. The exception is the piano, which is recorded in stereo.

The Anechoic Chamber in the Wendell Johnson Speech and Hearing Center is housed in a 27,000 cubic foot space (30′ x 30′ x 30′) that is isolated from the rest of the building. The chamber is further isolated within the “vault” in that its contact with the floor, walls, and ceiling is through a series of springs. The 36″ baffles which fill the floor, walls, and ceiling contribute to sound absorption properties that extend down to 60 Hz.

Please feel free to use these samples in your research or music projects without restriction. You may also cite as a reference, link to our page from another web page, or provide a link in a publication using the following URL:


Please let us know how these samples are being used in your research, creative work, or recreation by contacting Lawrence Fritts at the University of Iowa.

Rudolph Koenig’s Grand Tonometre

Koenig's Tuning Fork Tonometer


 “Altered Sensations: Rudolph Koenig’s Acoustical Workshop in Nineteenth-Century Paris,” Springer, 2009.

Visitors to the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition marveled at the elements of sound in the form of Rudolph Koenig’s Grand Tonometre of over 692 tuning forks with 800 tones represented, ranging from 16 to 4096Hz.  Koenig had packaged these elements into orderly rows of individual tuning forks covering roughly the range of the piano.  The entire display reflected prevalent ways of organizing knowledge at the time….Perhaps, just as important to the audience at the Centennial  Exhibition, the tonometer was an instrument that displayed the high art of acoustic instrument manufacturing and precise tuning.

Large Tuning-Fork Tonometer  (grandtonometre).  Rack is 36 inches high.  It is located in the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC, catalog number 315716, negative 70524.

From Wiki:
Karl Rudolph Koenig (German: Rudolf Koenig; November 26, 1832 – October 2, 1901), known by himself and others as Rudolph Koenig, was a German physicist, chiefly concerned with acoustic phenomena.

Koenig was born in Königsberg (Province of Prussia), and studied at the University of Königsberg in his native town.

About 1852 he went to Paris, and became apprentice to the famous violin-maker, Jean Baptiste Vuillaume (1798-1875), and some six years later he started business on his own account. He called himself a “maker of musical instruments,” but the instrument for which his name is best known is the tuning fork. Koenig’s work speedily gained a high reputation among physicists for accuracy and general excellence. From this business Koenig derived his livelihood for the rest of his life. One of his last catalogs had 262 different items.

He was, however, very far from being a mere tradesman. Acoustical research was his real interest, and to that he devoted all the time and money he could spare from his business. An exhibit which he sent to the London Exhibition of 1862 gained a gold medal, and at the Philadelphia Exposition at 1876 great admiration was expressed for a tonometric apparatus of his manufacture. This consisted of about 670 tuning-forks, of as many different pitches, extending over four octaves, and it afforded a perfect means for testing, by enumeration of the beats, the number of vibrations producing any given note and for accurately tuning any musical instrument. An attempt was made to secure this apparatus for the University of Pennsylvania, and Koenig was induced to leave it behind him in America on the assurance that it would be purchased; but, ultimately, the money not being forthcoming, the arrangement fell through, to his great disappointment.

Some of the forks he disposed of to the University of Toronto and the remainder he used as a nucleus for the construction of a still more elaborate tonometer. While the range of the old apparatus was only between 128 and 4096 Hz, the lowest fork of the new one vibrated at only 16 Hz, while the highest gave a sound too high to be perceptible to the human ear.

Koenig’s manometric flame apparatus (1862), used to visualize sound waves. Air pressure from an acoustic phone altered the flame provided by a Bunsen gas flame, which was amplified by a rotating mirror and recorded

Koenig will also be remembered as the inventor and constructor of many other beautiful pieces of apparatus for the investigation of acoustical problems, among which may be mentioned his wave-sirens, the first of which was shown at Philadelphia in 1876. His original work dealt, among other things, with Wheatstone’s sound-figures, the characteristic notes of the different vowels, a manometric flame apparatus, a vibration microscope, among others; but perhaps the most important of his researches are those devoted to the phenomena produced by the interference of two tones, in which he disputed the views of Helmholtz as to the existence of summation and difference tones.

Previous Post

A Tesla coil is a type of resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891.[1] It is used to produce high voltage, low current, high frequency alternating current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations and they consist of two, or sometimes three, coupled resonant electric circuits. Tesla used these coils to conduct innovative experiments in electrical lighting, phosphorescence, x-ray generation, high frequency alternating current phenomena, electrotherapy, and the transmission of electrical energy without wires for point-to-point telecommunications, broadcasting, and the transmission of electrical power.

Singing Tesla Coil at Duckon 2007


Instant MIDI Drum Patterns

At last, a solution to electronic drumming for people without a degree in percussion! Two all different book and software packages are available: 200 Instant Drum Patterns and 260 Instant Drum Patterns – for a total of 460 different patterns! They both include a variety of musical styles and fill patterns. About one-third of the patterns are fills.


All patterns on disk

Patterns shown in both music and grid notation

Includes fill patterns

Works with any sequencer (Standard MIDI File format)

Works with any keyboard, module or drum machine with percussion sounds

via Instant MIDI Drum Patterns.

— ixi software —


— ixi software —.

Some very interesting experimental software for Mac and Windows, all free!

From the website:

“ixi audio is an experimental project concerned with the creation of digital musical instruments and environments for generative music. We are interested in the computer as a workshop for building non-conventional tools for musicians, i.e. not trying to imitate or copy the tools that we know from the world of acoustic instruments or studio technology. We currently work with open source software such as SuperCollider, ChucK and Pure Data, but our aim is to distribute our applications packaged in a way that allows everybody to use them. Simplicity and ease of use together with depth in interaction and expressive scope is the aim of our experimental music software.”

P22 Music Text Composition Generator ( A free online music utility)

P22 Music Text Composition Generator.

The P22 Music Composition Font was proposed in 1997 to the John Cage Trust as an accompaniment to the John Cage text font based on the handwriting of the composer. The idea was basic and simple-every letter of the alphabet was assigned to a note on a scale. This would allow for any text to be converted into musical notation. The idea was rejected by the John Cage Trust, however the John Cage Silence font based on his famous 4’33” composition was accepted and continues to be offered for sale to this day. An earlier project based on the work of Marcel Duchamp was also influential in the evolution of this project. This page and current project has no affiliation with John Cage, the John Cage Trust or the Marcel Duchamp estate.